ACROSS THE BOARD
A Win, Place and Show bet on a horse. If your selection wins, you collect on all three bets. If your selection runs second, you collect on Place and Show bets. If your selection runs third, you collect the Show bet. Your total wager will be three times the individual bet. For example; $2 'Across The Board' would cost $6.
1: A horse's manner of moving
2: A term meaning wagering: "The horse took a lot of action"
Money added to the purse of a race by the racing association or a breeding or other fund to the amount paid by owners in nomination, eligibility, entry and starting fees.
When a horse extends itself to the utmost.
A race other than a claiming event for which the racing secretary drafts certain conditions to determine weights to be carried based on the horse's age, sex and/or past performance.
A horse officially entered for a race, but not permitted to start unless the field is reduced by scratches below a specified number.
A jockey who has ridden for less than a year and who receives weight allowances.
Weight concession given to an apprentice rider of ten pounds until the fifth winner, seven pounds until the 35th winner, five pounds after the 35th winner. The apprentice is then allowed five pounds for one calendar year after the 40th winner beginning with the date of the 5th winner.
The racetrack's stable area.
Straight portion of the far side of the racing surface between the turns.
Leg wraps used for support or protection against injury during a race.
A horseshoe closed at the back to help support the heel of the hoof. Often worn by horses with quarter cracks or bruised feet.
A colour ranging from tan to dark chestnut with black mane, tail and points.
BEYER SPEED RATING
A measure of performance popularized by Andy Beyer of The Washington Post
A stainless steel, rubber or aluminium bar, attached to the bridle, which fits in the horse's mouth and is one the means by which a jockey exerts guidance and control.
A horse colour which is black, including the muzzle, flanks, mane, tail and legs unless white markings are present.
A horse that bleeds from the lungs when small capillaries that surround the lungs' air sacs (alveoli) rupture. The medical term is "exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage" (EIPH). The most common treatment is the use of the diuretic furosemide (Lasix).
A cup-shaped device to limit a horse's vision to prevent him from swerving from objects or other horses on either side of him.
A short, timed workout, usually a day or two before a race, designed to sharpen a horse's speed. Usually three-eights on either side of it.
Sudden veering from a straight course, usually to the outside rail.
An exceptionally poor performance on the heels of an exceptionally good one
A type of tendonitis. The most common injury to the tendon is a strain or "bowed" tendon, so named because of the appearance of a bow shape due to swelling.
Horse or rider winning the first race of its career.
Working a horse at moderate speed.
A piece of equipment, usually made of leather or nylon, which fits on a horse's head and is where other equipment, such as a bit and the reins, are attached.
A female horse used for breeding.
A sire whose female offspring become producers of exceptional performers.
Inflammation of the covering of the bone of the front surface of the cannon bone, to which young horses are particularly susceptible. This primarily a condition of the front legs.
An apprentice rider.
Fastest workout of the day at a particular distance.
A small racetrack, usually less than one mile.
Short for phenylbutazone, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication that is legal in most racing jurisdictions. Often known by the trade name Butazolidin.
A projection on the heels of a horseshoe, similar to a cleat, on the rear shoes of a horse to prevent slipping, especially on a wet track. Also known as a "sticker." Sometimes incorrectly spelled "caulk."
CALL TO THE POST
A special call played on a Bugle used to signal the horses to the starting gate.
The third metacarpal (front leg) or metatarsal (rear leg), also referred to as the shin bone. The largest bone between the knee and ankle joints.
Wagering favourite in a race. Dates from the days when on-track bookmakers would write current odds on a chalkboard.
When a jockey slows a horse due to other horses impeding its progress.
A colour ranging from light gold to deep red. Also, a small, horny growth on the inside of a horse's front legs.
CLAIM OR CLAIMING
Process by which a licensed person may purchase a horse entered in a designated race for a predetermined price. When a horse has been claimed, its new owner assumes title after the starting gate opens although the former owner is entitled to all purse money earned in that race.
A race in which the horses are for sale at a price specified before the race. Claims are made before the race and the new owner assumes possession immediately following the race.
1: A race of traditional importance
2: Used to describe a distance, i.e., a race at the American classic distance, which is 1 1/4 miles. The European classic distance is 1 1/2 miles.
When a horse lifts its front legs abnormally high as it gallops, causing it to run inefficiently.
The turn on a racing oval that is closest to the clubhouse facility usually the first turn after the finish line.
An ungelded male horse 4 years old or younger.
A series of booklets issued by a racing secretary, which set forth conditions of races to be run at a particular racetrack.
The requirements of a particular race. This may include age, sex, money or races won, weight carried and the distance of the race.
A fracture in the lower knobby end (condyle) of the lower (distal) end of a long bone such as the cannon bone or humerus (upper front limb).
Two or more horses running as an entry in a single betting unit.
A dry and loose racing surface that breaks away under a horse's hooves.
Top portion of a racetrack.
The mother of a horse.
DARK BAY OR BROWN
A horse colour that ranges from brown with areas of tan on the shoulders, head and flanks, to a dark brown, with tan areas seen only on the flanks and/or muzzle. The mane, tail and lower portions of the legs are always black unless white markings are present.
In the United States, a horse withdrawn from a stakes race in advance of scratch time. In Europe, a horse confirmed to start a race.
A race for female horses.
Rubber traffic cones (or a wooden barrier) placed at certain distances out from the inner rail, when the track is wet, muddy, soft, yielding or heavy, to prevent horses during the workout period from churning the footing along the rail.
Strong urging by jockey to.
Extremely late in breaking from the gate.
Good speed at the start of a race.
Two or more horses representing the same owner or trained by the same person and running together as a single betting entity.
Footing that is dry, even and resilient.
Joint located between the cannon bone and the long pastern bone, also referred to as the "ankle."
FIELD HORSE or MUTUEL FIELD
Two or more starters running as a single betting unit (entry), when there are more starters in a race than positions on the tote board.
A female horse less than 5 years old.
A condition of a turf course corresponding to fast on a dirt track. A firm, resilient surface.
A very tired horse that slows considerably.
FONTANA SAFETY RAIL
An aluminium rail, in use since 1981, designed to help reduce injuries to horse and rider. It has more of an offset (slant) to provide greater clearance between the rail and the vertical posts as well as a protective cover to keep horse and rider from striking the posts.
An eighth of a mile.
A medication used in the treatment of bleeders, commonly known under the trade name Lasix, which acts as a diuretic, reducing pressure on the capillaries.
A race for two-year-olds in which the owners make a continuous series of payments over a period of time to keep their horses eligible. Purses for these races vary but can be considerable.
A neutered male horse.
An elastic and leather band, sometimes covered with sheepskin, that passes under a horse's belly and is connected to both sides of the saddle.
A dirt track that is almost fast or a turf course slightly softer than firm.
GRAB A QUARTER
Injury to the back of the hoof or foot caused by a horse stepping on itself (usually affects the front foot). Being stepped on from behind in the same manner, usually affects the back foot. A common, usually minor injury.
Established in 1973 to classify select stakes races in North America, at the request of European racing authorities, who had set up group races two years earlier. Capitalized when used in race title (the Grade I Belmont Stakes). See group race.
A horse colour where the majority of the coat is a mixture of black and white hairs. The mane, tail and legs may be either black or gray unless white markings are present. Starting with foals of 1993, the color classifications gray and roan were combined as "roan or gray." See roan.
Like a bridle, but lacking a bit. Used in handling horses around the stable and when they are not being ridden.
Four inches. A horse's height is measured in hands and inches from the top of the shoulder (withers) to the ground, e.g., 15.2 hands is 15 hands, 2 inches. Thoroughbreds typically range from 15 to 17 hands.
This is the study of factors in the past performances which determine the relative qualities and abilities of horses in a race.
Wettest possible condition of a turf course; not usually found in North America.
A large joint just above the shin bone in the rear legs. Corresponds to the level of the knee of the front leg.
When reference is made to sex, a "horse" is an ungelded male five-years-old or older.
The person who walks the horses to cool them down after a workout or a race.
IN THE MONEY
Finishes first, second or third.
Area encompassed by the inner rail of the turf course.
Official investigation of rules infractions.
An inflammation of the sensitive laminae of the foot, which usually manifests itself in the front feet, develops rapidly, and can be life-threatening. In mild cases, a horse can resume a certain amount of athletic activity. Also known as "founder."
Diuretic medication given to horses which bleed.
A measurement approximating the length of a horse, used to denote distance between horses in a race.
A stakes race just below a group race or graded race in quality.
A horse that hasn't won a flat race in any country. Also: A female that has never been bred.
A female horse 5 years old or older.
Broadly, from one mile to 1 1/8 miles.
The starting odds set by the track handicapper.
A condition of a racetrack which is wet but has no standing water.
A leather strap that goes over the bridge of a horse's nose to help secure the bridle. A "figure eight" nose band goes over the bridge of the nose and under the rings of the bit to help keep the horse's mouth closed. This keeps the tongue from sliding up over the bit and is used on horses that do not like having a tongue tie used.
Claim of a foul lodged by a rider, patrol judge or other official after the running of a race. If lodged by an official, it is called an inquiry.
Odds of less than even money.
Wagering at legalized betting outlets usually run by the tracks, management companies specializing in pari-mutuel wagering or, in New York State, by independent corporations chartered by the state. Wagers at OTB sites are usually commingled with on-track betting pools.
A horse whose odds are greater than its potential to win.
A race in which entries close a specific number of hours before running (such as 48 hours), as opposed to a stakes race, for which nominations close weeks and sometimes months in advance.
A horse carrying more weight than the conditions of the race require, usually because the jockey exceeds the stated limit.
Structure or area where horses are saddled and kept before going to the track.
System of wagering where all the money is returned to the wagerers after deduction of taxes, track and state percentages.
A horse's racing record, earnings, bloodlines and other data, presented in composite form.
An official who observe the progress of a race from various vantage points around the track.
A result so close that it is necessary to use the finish-line camera to determine the order of finish.
Small numbered ball used in a blind draw to decide post positions.
A person who buys a racehorse with the specific intention of re-selling it at a profit.
Markers at measured distances around the track designating the distance from the finish. The quarter pole, for instance, is a quarter of a mile from the finish, not from the start.
The top of the horse's head, between the ears.
Horses going from paddock to starting gate past the stands.
Position of stall in starting gate from which a horse starts.
Designated time for a race to start.
When a horse suddenly stops moving by digging its front feet into the ground.
The total monetary amount distributed after a race to the owners of the entrants who have finished in the top five positions.
A crack between the toe and heel.
A horse with one or both undescended testes.
A horse that finishes a race under mild urging, not as severe as driving.
Horse with white hairs mingled throughout its coat.
A race distance of longer than 1 1/4 miles.
Abrasions of the heel.
A Thoroughbred racing saddle is the lightest saddle used, weighing less than two pounds.
SCALE OF WEIGHTS
Fixed weights to be carried by horses according to their age, sex, race distance and time of year.
To be taken out of a race before it starts. Trainers usually scratch horses due to adverse track conditions or a horse's adverse health. A veterinarian can scratch a horse at any time.
Two small bones (medial and lateral sesamoids) located above and at the back of the fetlock joint. Four common fractures of the sesamoids are apical (along the top of the bone), abaxial (the side of the sesamoid away from the ankle joint), mid-body (sesamoid broken in half) and basilar (through the bottom) fractures.
A roll (usually sheepskin) that is secured over the bridge of a horse's nose to keep it from seeing shadows on the track and shying away from or jumping them.
Stable area. A row of barns.
Jacket and cap worn by jockeys.
Father of a foal.
A racing strip that is saturated with water; with standing water visible.
A racing strip that is wet on both the surface and base.
Condition of a turf course with a large amount of moisture. Horses sink very deeply into it.
Three-year-old horses. Called sophomores because age three is the second year of racing eligibility.
SPIT THE BIT
A term referring to a tired horse that begins to run less aggressively, backing off on the "pull" a rider normally feels on the reins from an eager horse. Also used as a generic term for an exhausted horse.
1: Either of the two small bones that lie along the sides of the cannon bone.
2: The condition where calcification occurs on the splint bone causing a bump. This can result from response to a fracture or other irritation to the splint bone.
Short race, less than one mile.
A race for which the owner usually must pay a fee to run a horse. The fees, to which the track adds more money to make up the total purse, can be for nominating, maintaining eligibility, entering and starting. Stakes races by invitation require no fees.
Uncastrated male horse.
A horse being taken in hand by its rider, usually because of being in close quarters.
Officials of the race meeting responsible for enforcing the rules of racing.
Metal "D"-shaped rings into which a jockey places his/her feet. They can be raised or lowered depending on the jockey's preference. Also known as "irons."
Bend of track into the final straightaway.
A horse pulled up sharply by its rider because of being in close quarters.
A permanent, indelible mark on the inside of the upper lip used to identify the horse.
A Thoroughbred is a horse whose parentage traces back to any of the three "founding sires": the Darley Arabian, Byerly Turk and Godolphin Barb, and who has satisfied the rules and requirements of The Jockey Club and is registered in The American Stud Book or in a foreign stud book recognized by The Jockey Club and the International Stud Book Committee.
TONGUE TIE or STRAP
Strip of cloth-type material used to stabilize a horse's tongue to prevent the horse from "choking down" in a race or workout or to keep the tongue from sliding up over the bit, rendering the horse uncontrollable.
Rear shoe that is turned down 1/4-inch to one inch at the ends to provide better traction on an off-track. Illegal in many jurisdictions.
Grass covered race course.
Horse whose odds are more promising than his potential to win.
A person who helps jockeys keep their wardrobe and equipment in order.
A race in which only one horse competes.
A horse that becomes so nervous that it sweats profusely. Also known as "washy" or "lathered (up)."
A foal that is less than one-year-old that has been separated (weaned) from its dam.
The assigned weight for a horse, including the jockey, equipment and lead weights if needed.
An extremely rare horse colour in which all the hairs are white. The horse's eyes are brown, not pink, as would be the case for an albino.
Area above the shoulder, where the neck meets the back.
Exercise session at a predetermined distance.
A horse that is one year old. The universal birth date of horses is January 1.
Condition of a turf course with a great deal of moisture. Horses sink into it noticeably.