Totebet - Pari-Mutuel (tote) wagering on Horse and Greyhound racing

Horse Racing

Harness Racing

Greyhound Racing (Dogs)

Jai Alai

Information about betting at more than 50 US horse tracks.

Information about betting at more than 25 dog tracks.

Information about betting at more than 25 harness tracks.

Information on Jai Alai betting action from the fronton.

New customers - $300 Bonus for New US accounts. Sign up at Link2Bet. 100% Legal Online Betting.

Harness Racing Glossary of Terms

Everything you needed to know about Harness Racing

ABANDONED
A race meeting which has been cancelled because there were not sufficient nominations to be able to stage the meeting, or because of weather poor conditions. A race meeting may also be abandoned part way through because of weather conditions deteriorating.

ALL CLEAR
Signified by a siren at the end of a race, the all clear means that the stewards deem the finishing order of horses is correct and bets may be paid out. It also means that no protest or objection has been made by the connections of any horse in the race.

ALL-THE-WAY WIN
When a horse leads from start to finish in a race.

ATTACK
When a horse challenges the leading horse during a race, in an attempt to take the lead. An attack can drain a horse's energy

BACK MARKER
In a standing start event, which is handicapped, the horse who is given the biggest handicap is known as the back marker.

BACK STRAIGHT
The straight length of the track farthest away from the spectators and the winning post.

BARRIER
Another term for the mobile barrier. A barrier may also refer to the position a horse has drawn in a mobile event.

BARRIER DRAW
The process of determining the starting position or barrier for each horse in a race. Generally, the barrier draw is conducted by a computer; however, for special races or events, the barrier draw may be conducted manually in front of patrons at a pace way.

BEGINNER
A horse which is termed a good beginner is either a pacer which shows a lot of speed at the start of a mobile event, or a trotter or pacer which steps away cleanly from a standing start.

BELL
A bell that is rung in the home straight to warn drivers they are about to commence the final lap of the race.

BELL LAP
The last lap of a race, signified by the ringing of the bell.

BETTING RING
An allocated area at the pace way where bookmakers work. Punters go to the betting ring in order to find out the odds of horses in a race and place their bets.

BIRD CAGE
The enclosure or place on a pace way where horses are marshaled and paraded for events. The identity brand of each horse is checked during the marshalling period. Also known as the enclosure

BLOWING UP
A horse which has had a very hard run, is not at its peak fitness, or does not handle the conditions of a race very well, may be referred to as ‘blowing up' after the run.

BOXED IN
A horse that is racing on the rails (or fence) and is surrounded by other horses in front, outside and behind it. A horse that is boxed in is held up and unable to gain a clear run.

BREAK
To start galloping and lose natural trotting or pacing rhythm. This situation tends to occur more with trotters than pacers.

BROKEN DOWN
A horse which suffers an injury, or develops a condition that makes it unable to race, is referred to as having broken down.

BROODMARE
A female horse, generally retired from racing, used for breeding purposes.

CAMERA
A camera is fitted to the finishing post and takes a picture the minute a horse crosses the finishing line in case the result of the race is close and the officials call for a photo or developed print.

CARD
Another term for fixture or race meeting. For example, a person may refer to there being eight races on the card, which simple means eight races will be staged at that particular meeting

CART
Another term for sulky

CHECK
To suffer interference during a race, causing a horse to alter its speed and/or path in a race. A severe check can ruin a horse's chance in a race.

CHOKED DOWN
When a driver tries to get a horse to run at a slowed rate, he or she will sometimes pull its head back, unintentionally cutting off its breathing. This can cause the horse to lose consciousness and collapse on to the track.

CLAIMING RACES
Also known as claimers. These races are made up of runners which can be purchased or ‘claimed' by members of the public at a designated price.

CLASSIC RACE
A race restricted to horses of the one age in which all competitors start off the same mark.

COLOURS
The special colorful jacket worn by drivers when in a race. A horse may only compete in the registered colors of either its owner or trainer. Trainers and owners can choose their own set of color combinations but must apply to the Harness Racing Authority to have them approved.

COLT
A male horse aged three or under

COASTING
Usually a horse leading the race, traveling easily and under no pressure from the field.

CONDITION
The fitness level of a horse. For example, it may be described as peak racing condition or poor condition.

CRACKING PACE
When the leader(s) of a race set off at a quick speed it is referred to as setting a ‘cracking pace’.

CROSS FIRE
When a horse's hind foot strikes their leg or their front foot.

CROSSING
When a horse starts from an outside position and crosses to the inside fence. The term can also be used if a horse has the speed to beat all of the other horses to the lead it is referred to as crossing to the lead.

DAM
The female parent of a horse.

DEAD HEAT
This is a situation that arises when the officials cannot determine which horse has won the race. In this instance the race will be declared a dead-heat. This can happen with horses crossing the line in first place together, second place and third place. Triple dead heats can also occur (where three horses cannot be separated) but this is extremely rare.

THE 'DEATH'
Also known as the death seat. The position outside the leader, one horse off the rails or fence. This is one of the hardest positions to be in a race as the horse has to cover the most ground in order to win the race.

DERBY
This is a classic race for three-year-old pacers or trotters.

DEVELOPED PRINT
An official may ask for a developed print if the horses finish too close together to be able to determine who one the race. (see camera)

DICTATE TERMS
A driver whose horse is in the lead and is running along at a pace that suits its ability, without any pressure from other runners, is said to be dictating terms. This horse is in a prime position to win the race.

DISQUALIFICATION
This happens when the stewards prohibit a person from the harness racing industry for a period of time. This can happen if a trainer or jockey breaks any of the industries rules.

DISTANCED
A horse that has trailed off at the back of the field and has a slim chance of catching the field.

DOUBLE
If a driver or trainer records two winners at a race meeting, they are said to have recorded a winning double. Likewise, should they win three races, this is known as a winning treble.

DRIVER
The person holding a license or permit to drive harness horses. There are different types of licenses, which correspond to differing levels of experience.

ENCLOSURE
Another term for ‘birdcage’

FACING THE BREEZE
Another term for ‘death’.

FALSE START (from standing start event)
This happens when a runner breaks before the official starting of the race and it is deemed to be an unfair advantage. In this instance the race starter will declare a false start and the race will have to be restarted. In certain instances the barrier tape can fail and this will also be deemed as a false start.

FALSE START (from Mobile start event)
A false start from a mobile starting event occurs when a horse through no fault of its own, has been denied a fair start.

FILLY
A female horse aged three or under.

FENCE
The inside fence is the inside running rail around the race track, while the outside fence is the outside running rail of the track.

FIELD
The final list of horses, selected by the handicapper that will take part in a designated race.

FIRST-UP
The first run a horse has in a new campaign or preparation, usually after having a period of time away from racing

FIXTURE
Another term for ‘meeting’

FLOAT
The trailer like vehicle used to transport a horse to the race track

FOAL
A newly born horse. Also describes the act of a mare giving birth.

FORCED WIDE
Occurs when a horse is forced wide on the racetrack by other horses.

FORM
The form is stats of a horses’ performance history. Recent form enables punters to make an informed opinion on who will win the race. Form statistics include recent starts, finishing position, trainer and jockey information, stable information and number of wins and board positions that a horse has recorded.

FREE-FOR-ALL
A race for top grade horses starting off the same mark.

FREELANCE DRIVER
A driver that is employed by a trainer or stable to ride their horses. This is not usually on a regular basis otherwise they would be known as the stable rider. A freelance driver does not train or own their own horse.

FREE LEGGED
A pacer which races without wearing hopples (see ‘hopples’) to help maintain its gait is known as a free legged pacer.

FRONT
Also known as the front mark, the front means the handicap mark allotted to those horses to race the minimum advertised distance for any race.

GAIT
Harness horses are divided into two distinct groups, pacers or trotters, depending on their gait when racing. The gait is the manner in which a horse moves its legs when running. The pacer is a horse with a lateral gait, whereas a trotter or square gaiter has a diagonal gait.

GALLOP
Another term for ‘break’.

GATE
Another term for barrier. A horse that is starting from position 2 in a race is said to be starting from gate 2 or barrier 2.

GEAR
The equipment carried by trotters and pacers. Gear can generally be split into three categories: pads on the legs to prevent self-inflicted injury; equipment to balance a horse in its stride; and equipment to correct erratic behavior by a horse. The equipment helps a driver maintain control of the horse. Some horses are not as well-mannered or gaited as others and may require a lugging pole, shadow roll, head check, shin boots and/or knee boots.

GELDING
A neutered male horse of any age.

GIG
Another term for ‘sulky’

GOOD HOLD
Another term for ‘under double wraps’

GONE
A horse which has lost all chances of winning in a race, or after racing well for part of the race, then runs out of energy and falls back in the field.

GREEN
A horse that has not raced or has only raced a few times.

GYMKHANA
This is a step towards a full race meeting after the trial. There are usually no monetary prizes for gymkhana races

HANDICAP
The mark off which a horse starts a race. Some horses will be weighted in order to make the race a fair competition.

HANDICAP RACE
A race where distance allowances are made to equalize all the horses chances of winning the race.

HANGING
A horse can have a tenancy to hang to the inside and try to heads for the inside rain. Similarly a horse can hang to the outside of the track.

HARNESS
The gear which is used to attach the sulky to a horse, to steer the horse

HEADQUARTERS
The main harness racing track in a particular area.

HOME STRAIGHT
The straight length of the track on the approach to the finishing line. Also known as the run in.

HOME TURN
The final turn a horse must travel around before entering the home straight in the run to the finish line.

HOPPLES
The straps which connect the front and rear legs on the same side of a horse. Most pacers wear hopples to help balance their stride and maintain a pacing gait. The length of hopples is adjustable and a trainer registers the length that best suits his or her horse. No alteration to this length can be made without permission.

HORSE
A male horse aged four and over.

INCONVENIENCED
The proper term for a horse which is checked.

INDIAN FILE
When a field of horses race in single file, one behind the other.

INTRACTABLE
A horse which often does things wrong, like breaking, pulling or hanging during a race, or is very difficult to keep under control.

INQUIRY
Stewards may conduct an inquiry as a result of any incident which rules have been broken. It is an official investigation.

JOG
To pace or trot at a leisurely pace

JUDGE
The person who decides the official placings and margins for each race or trial. They are also responsible for deciding who the place getters are in the event of a photo.

LAME
The term used to describe a horse which is limping or has difficulty walking properly. Lameness is often caused by an injury.

LATE SCRATCHING
A horse which is scratched from a race after acceptances have been declared.

LEAD TIME
The time it takes for a horse to travel from the start of the race to the beginning of the last mile (1609m). For instance, in a 1760m race, the lead time would be recorded during the first 151m (1760-1609). A slow lead time may advantage those horses at the front, while a fast lead time may advantage horses racing at the rear of the field.

LEADER
The horse which is out in front or leading during a race.

LEASING
As opposed to buying a harness horse, people have the option of leasing one. Just like some people lease a car instead of paying the money up-front, leasing a horse gives people use of a horse without laying out a large sum of money.

LET UP
Another term for a spell, however, a let-up usually refers to a short break, not a lengthy spell in the paddock.

LOCKED UP
Another term for being boxed in

LOOSE REIN
A horse on a loose rein is one which is allowed to run freely, without any pressure from the driver to speed up or slow down.

LUG
When a horse tends to steer away from the position that the jockey is asking it to go.

MAIDEN
A horse which has not yet won a race.

MARE
A female horse, aged four and over.

MEETING
This is the term used for a race fixture at a track.

MILE RATE
A calculation for each race distance is applied to the overall time of a race, so as to give a comparison to a mile. It is the approximate time the pacer would have run, had the distance been one mile (1609m). The overall race time is multiplied by 1609 and then divided by the meter length of the race.

MOBILE START
The most commonly used form of starting a race in harness racing in NSW. A mobile barrier consists of two folding arms attached to a motor vehicle. The horses in a race follow the barrier as it gathers speed, until the arms fold back and a start is affected. The vehicle then speeds away out of the path of the horses.

NOMINATIONS
A list of the names of horses that have been entered for a race.

NON STARTER
A horse which has failed to start a race.

OAKS
A classic race restricted to three-year-old fillies.

OBJECTION
A verbal or written statement against the eligibility of a horse for a particular race, or one made against the judges verdict of the outcome of a race.

ODM
Outside draw mobiles. Horses which are required to re-qualify before competing again in registered races.

ODS
Outside draw stands.

OFFICIAL MARGINS
The length each horse in a race finished behind the winner, as determined by the judge.

THE 'ONE-ONE'
The position occupied by the horse immediately behind the death position. It means the said horse is one runner off the rails and one runner back. The one-one is also referred to as the one out, one back trail. This position provides cover from the wind.

ONE BACK
The runners behind the leader and the death horse are referred to as being one back. The horses behind these runners would be two back and so on.

ONE OUT
The runners behind the horse in the one-one position are normally referred to as being one out (and two, three or four back etc, depending on its position). Similarly, a horse racing on the outside of the horse in the one-one, would be classified as being two out, a runner outside of this horse would be three out and so on.

ON THE FENCE/RAILS
A horse racing in a position next to the inside running rail.

ON THE PAINT
A horse racing extremely closely to the rail.

ON THE PACE
A horse which is keeping up with the runner which is determining the speed of the race

OPEN CLASS
Horses, generally four years of age and older, which compete in races open to the most well-performed horses.

OUT OF POSITION
A horse which is not in its designated barrier position at the start of a mobile event is said to have been out of position at the start.

OUTSIDE DRAW
The barrier positions furthest away from the inside running rail.

OUTSIDE DRIVE
A driver who is pulled in by a stable to drive for them.

OUTSIDE FENCE
The outside running rail, closest to the spectators.

OVERALL TIME
This is the time taken to complete the distance of the race, as opposed to the mile rate.

PARKED OUT
A horse racing on the outside, with at least one horse between it and the inside rail or barrier.

PEGS
The most recent term for the inside running rail.

PHOTO FINISH
Another term for ‘developed print’.

PLODDING
A horse which is not racing as quickly as its ability allows is simply plodding along.

POCKET
Another term for ‘boxed in’. A horse in a pocket is unable to obtain a clear run because it has other runners situated in front, behind and to the side of it.

POLE POSITION
The number one barrier position, which is on the front line closest to the inside fence.

PRELIMINARY
The warm-up given to a horse on the track just prior to its race. Runners are usually let out onto the track around ten minutes before the start of a race to warm up.

PREPARATION
The period of time that a horse races for. Standardbreds usually have a spell or rest before returning to the race track for their next preparation.

PROTEST
A verbal or written dissent regarding the placings of a particular race, which is made to the stewards before the all clear is signaled.

PULLED THE PLUGS
Drivers who pull the plugs during a race are merely releasing the ear plugs that have been in their horse's ears up until that time. Ear plugs can help keep a horse's mind on the job and help nervy horses stay calm leading up to and during part of the race. When released, (often as the horse gets closer to the finish) the sudden exposure to more noise may help spur on the horse.

PULLED UP
A horse which has finished a race has pulled up due to a problem with the horse or the cart.

PULLING
Some horses get fired-up during a race and try to run faster than the tempo of the other runners. These horses are 'pulling'. Horses that pull will usually waste a lot of energy in the process, leaving little in reserve for the finish.

PULLING OUT
A horse which is pulling out in a race is one which is coming from a rails or running line position and heading to the outside of the track.

PUNTER
An investor or person who places bets on the outcome of a race.

PURPLE PATCH
Refers to form or performance. A horse or trainer has hit a "purple patch" when experiencing a run of success.

QUARTER
Refers to a quarter of a mile (roughly 400metres). There are four quarters in the last mile (1609 meters) of every race, which is used when determining sectional times.

RACED OUTSIDE
Another term for ‘the death’.

RAILS RUN
A horse can be stuck on the fence behind the leader, with other runners behind and next to it, and unable to get a clear run to the finish line. However, sometimes the leader will move out wider on the track when under pressure in the run home.

RACE CALL
The description of a race while it is in process, which includes such things as the positions of the runners at different stages, any moves made by drivers, and any incidents that occur. A race is called or described by a race caller.

RATED
Relating to the mile rate that a horse records over any race distance.

REINSMAN - REINSWOMAN
Another term for driver

RELEGATION RULE
A rule which gives Stewards the power to relegate a horse/s to a different finishing position, should they believe, for example, it destroyed the chances of another runner which would have definitely finished ahead of it.

REQUALIFY
A horse which has raced intractably in a registered event, or causes a false start or behaves intractably at the start, may be barred from racing by the Stewards until it can perform satisfactorily in one or more qualifying trials. Once the horse has achieved this, the horse has re-qualified to start in registered events.

RESTRICTED RACES
Races which only certain horses are eligible for, meaning the race is restricted to a select group. A restricted race may be based on a horse's age, gender, winnings, or a combination of factors, for example, one that is restricted to two-year-old fillies only.

RETURN TO SCALE
The period between the finish of the race and the signaling of the all clear. This term originated from the galloping code of racing, with jockeys having to return to the scale to check their weight before the all-clear for a race can be given.

RUNNING LINE
Horses which are referred to as being in the running line are those racing behind the horses who occupy the death seat and one-one position. These horses are one out on the track and are racing with cover.

RUNNING RAIL
Another term for fence. It is the structure which acts as a barrier between the centre of the track (inside running rail) and the viewing facilities (outside running rail).

SADDLECLOTH
The device which displays the horse's barrier position within a race, and in some cases, the color of the saddlecloth refers to the race number.

SCORE-UP
The movement behind the mobile barrier before a start is initiated. All horses should be in their respective positions when the mobile gate begins to move. The mobile vehicle gradually increases its acceleration throughout the score-up until it reaches the starting point when the field is released.

SCRATCHING
A horse that is withdrawn (or scratched) from a race before the start. Horses can be scratched because of illness or injury.

SECTIONAL TIME
There are four sectional times in every race, which are the four quarters of the last mile (1609m). An acceptable set of sectionals or quarters would read 30.5 seconds, 31.0, 29.5, 29.5, to equal the last mile in 2:00.5 (two minutes and five seconds).

SHIFT OUT
To veer out wide on the track while racing. A horse may shift out when racing under pressure, and may sometimes cross into the path of other runners.

SHORTENERS
The implements used to shorten the length of a horse's hopples. Sometimes horses need a smaller stride during the beginning of a race, in order to ensure they maintain their gait and don't race too fiercely. In this case, a trainer would use hopple shorteners, which are pulled out at a later stage during the race to enable the horse to increase its stride and therefore speed.

SILKS
Another term for ‘colors’

SIRE
The male parent, or father, of a horse.

SIT
To race in a trailing position, another term for ‘trail’

SOFT RUN
An easy run. A horse which is not put under pressure in the running of the race, by receiving a favorable position throughout. For instance, a horse which travels in the one-one for most of the race, or travels in the lead without being taken on, may be referred to as having had a soft run

SPELL
The resting period between preparations or racing. Horses cannot remain in top condition all year round and need time to rest.

SPELLING PADDOCK
The resting place for a horse having a spell from racing.

SPLIT
A gap between two horses, usually towards the finish of a race, through which a fast finishing runner may race for the winning post.

SQUARE GAITING
Another term describing the gait of a trotter. When trotting or square gaiting, a horse stretches its left front and right rear legs forward almost simultaneously and then follows suit with its right front and left rear legs.

STACKED UP
The opposite to strung out. This is where a field of runners are closely packed together.

STABLES
Areas, enclosures or places on a Pace way used for the accommodation of horses competing at a meeting

STALLION
A male horse, generally retired from racing, that stands at stud and is used for breeding purposes.

STANDARDBRED:
Most harness racehorses in Britain, North America and Australasia are 'Standardbreds', so called because the American harness studbook, begun last century, used the ability to cover a mile in a 'standard' time (initially 2 min 30 seconds) as the criteria for entry. In Europe the French Trotter, the Scandinavian 'cold-blood' and the Russian Orlov are also used in harness racing, though Standardbreds and Standardbred crosses predominate everywhere except in France.

STANDING STARTS
A race start in which the horses are stationary at the time of release. A tape is drawn across in front of the runners and then released when the starter begins the event.

STARTER
The person responsible for starting a harness race, whether it be a mobile or standing start event. In a mobile event, the starter controls the start of the race from the back of the mobile vehicle, while in a standing start event, the starter controls the start from the track sidelines. The starter also decides when and if a false start should be declared.

STAYER
A horse which has the endurance to race well over long distances.

STEPPED AWAY CLEANLY
In a standing start event, a pacer or trotter which begins well (goes straight into their gait) when the start is affected, is referred to as having stepped away cleanly.

STEWARDS
The persons appointed by the Harness Racing Authority to assist in the control of racing and other matters related to the sport. They ensure all rules relating to racing and betting are observed and enforced. Stewards are required to regulate, control and inquire into and adjudicate on the conduct of officials, owners, trainers, drivers, persons attending to horses, bookmakers and clerks - at any event where licensed persons are involved.

THE STICK
A slang term for the whip used by drivers.

STRUNG OUT
A field of horses in a race in which the distances between the leader, the rear horse and the other runners is quite great. Such a field would be referred to as being well strung out.

STUD
A farm or stable or place where registered stallions and/or mares are located for breeding purposes

SULKY
Also known as the cart or gig, the sulky is the contraption attached to the harness which carries the driver and which the horse pulls. A modern sulky has two bicycle tires and weighs around 25kg.

SUSPENSION
A driver or trainer, who is deemed, by the stewards, to have broken one or more of the rules of harness racing, may receive a suspension as punishment.

SWABBING
The taking of blood and/or urine samples from a horse for analysis by a testing laboratory. The stewards may direct any horse to be swabbed before or after it has raced, irrespective of where it finishes in the race. The samples are tested by the laboratory for any irregularities or prohibited substances or drugs. A positive swab is one which has been found to contain a prohibited substance.

SWEATING UP
A horse which is sweating up has a lather of frothy looking sweat all over its body. This can be caused by nerves or because a horse has got fired up prior to the race starting.

SWEEPERS
Those horses which were racing at the rear of the field but are moved out to race wide on the track by their drivers in order to get a clear run down the home straight towards the finish line.

TAILED OFF
A horse that has tailed off means that the horse is no longer in contact with the rest of the field.

TAKEN ON
Another term for ‘attacked’. The leader of the race is sometimes "taken on" by another runner.

THREE WIDE
The same position that a horse which is two out occupies, in the third row of horses out from the inside rail. Similarly, a horse which is three out would be racing four wide (in the fourth row of horses out from the inside rail). Three and four wide is also termed three and four deep.

TIME TRIAL
A non-registered race in which a horse sets out to record a specific time, or to see exactly how fast it can run without having to deal with other runners as it would during a registered race. A pacemaker is sent out to make a horse run quicker

TIMING BOARD
This displays the progressive sectional, lead and overall times during a race, and the sectional and overall time, mile rate, placings and margins after a race.

TIPPED OUT
A driver who falls off the sulky or is thrown out, usually as a result of interference between his or her horse and another runner. The horse may also fall during the race.

TRACKS
Circuit lengths are Half-Mile in America, five furlongs/1000 meters (predominant in Scandinavia and much of Europe) and mile, though the famous 'Grande piste' at Vincennes in Paris is 2000 meters. Racing 'one wide' outside another horse means covering an extra 63 feet (almost 6 lengths) per mile on a half mile track and 47 feet on a five-eights one.

TRAIL
Racing immediately behind another horse, thus using it as a wind-break

TRAINER
The person responsible for looking after a horse and preparing it to race. A trainer must hold a license or permit to be entitled to train.

TRIAL
A non-registered horse race. Trials allow previously un-raced horses the opportunity to qualify to race at a registered meeting.

TROTTING
A slang term for harness racing in general. It also describes the gait of a "trotter.

UNDER DOUBLE WRAPS
A horse that is racing exceptionally well and under restraint.

UNDER PRESSURE
A horse that is under pressure either because it is being challenged or because they cannot carry on at the speed that they are going

WEAKENED
A horse which started off well in a race and was in a position from which it could win, but could not keep up that pace or keep up with the pace of the other runners and dropped back in the field.

WEANLING
A baby horse, up to its first birthday.

WELL DRAWN
To be given a favorable starting position or barrier, that suits the way that particular horse runs.

WELL TRIED
A horse which has been well supported by punters.

WHIP
Drivers will tap their horse with a whip when they want them to accelerate.

WINNING POST
The post, usually stipulating the name of the pace way, which marks exactly where the finish line is for all races at that track.

WIRE
Another term for the finish line.

WITHOUT COVER
To race in front of all other horses, without any protection from the wind resistance. A horse can be racing without cover if it is the leader, racing in the death seat, or racing out wide on the track.

YEARLING
Any horse between its first and second birthday